
References of Papers: History of Numerical PDEs
 L. F. Richardson, The approximate arithmetical solution by
finite differences of physical problems involving differential
equations with applications to the stress in a masonry dam,
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A210, 307357, 1910.
 L. F. Richardson, Weather Prediction by Numerical Process, 1922,
Cambridge University Press
 L. F. Richardson & J. A. Gaunt, The deferred approach to the limit,
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. A, vol. 226,229361, 1927
 R. Courant, K. Friedrichs & H. Lewy, Uber die partiellen
Differenzengleichungen der mathematischen Physik,
Math. Ann., 100,32,1928. Translated by Phyllis Fox:
On the partial differential equations of Mathematical Physics,
AEC Res. & Dev. Report, NYO7689, New York University, 1956
 A practical method for numerical evaluation of solutions
of partial differential equations of the heatconduction type,
J. Crank & P. Nicolson, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 43, 5067, 1947.
 G. G. O'Brien, M. A. Hyman & S. Kaplan, A study of the
numerical solution of partial differential equations,
J. Math. Physics, 29, 223251 (1951)
 A. R. Mitchell, Relaxation Methods in Compressible Flow,
Ph D Thesis, St Andrews, (1950)
 R. V. Southwell & D. N. de G. Allen, Relaxation methods
applied to determine the motion in two dimensions of a viscous
fluid past a fixed cylinder,
Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math., 129145, 8, 1955.
 A. M. Il'in, Differencing scheme for a differential equation with
a small parameter affecting the highest derivative,
Math. Notes Acad. Sci. USSR, 6, 592602(1969)
 D N de G Allen, Relaxation Methods in Engineering and Science,
McGraw Hill, 1954.
Links Related to the History of Numerical PDEs
 Lewis Fry Richardson From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lewis Fry Richardson (18811953) a short biography (
St Andrews University History of Mathematics archive)

Weather, War, and Mathematics by Philip J. Davis,
SIAM News, Volume 29, Number 9, November 1996. Reviews of
 The Forgiving Air: Understanding Environmental Change
By Richard C.J. Somerville, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1996, 195 pages, $21.95

The Collected Papers of Lewis Fry Richardson, Oliver M. Ashford et al., eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
1993, 2 volumes, 500 pages each, $150.00 each

Prophet or Professor? The Life and Work of Lewis Fry Richardson. By Oliver M. Ashford, A. Hilger, Boston, 1985, 309
pages

Richardson:
"The first to apply mathematical techniques to weather forecasting.
Initial plan required 3 months' worth of calculations to predict weather for next 24 hours. Became
practical postTuring. Pacifist. Contributed to calculus and study of diffusion (intermingling of
molecules or other small particles by random thermal motion. " From
Jeff Whittington's index of
mathematicians
and related types: logicians, philosophers, physicists, economists, and others.
 Dr. Vannevar Bush and the Differential Analyzer (1931)
 Differential Analyser made with Meccano Tim Robinson's Meccano Computing Machinery web site
 University of Manchester, National Archive for the History of Computing

Vannevar Bush's Analog Computer  The Differential Analyser
Notes abstracted from the book Bebop BYTES Back
(An Unconventional Guide to Computers) Copyright Information
 Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century, G. Pascal Zachary,
The Free Press, N.Y., 1997, 512 pages, $32.50. Reviewed in SIAM News, Vol 31, No. 10, Dec. 1998:
Vannevar Bush: The History of his Moment, His Moment in History, Richard H. Herman.
See also:
Memex (a portmanteau of "memory extender") is the name given by Vannevar Bush to the theoretical protohypertext computer system he proposed in his 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article "As We May Think".
 Olaus Magnus
Friedrich Erdmann Henrici (18401918) "...he introduced a Mechanics
Laboratory and a Harmonic Analyser." (MacTutor
History of Mathematics archive)
 Slide Rule Instructions.

William Henry Wittrick 19221986,
"...the method of analysis was based on Sir Richard Southwell's
tension coefficient method and was set out in tabular form, whilst
the arithmetic was done on a Fuller calculator, a slide rule with a
scale 500 in. long in the form of a helix on a cylinder about 3 in.
in diameter.
 "
The history of computation at Queen's began in the early 1860s when
James Thomson invented an analog integrator, known as the Differential
Analyser, which was used by his brother, Lord Kelvin, for computing
tide tables.
The tradition of computation was continued by Sir David Bates FRS, who
used a differential analyser when he was a student at Queen's in the
1930s. Later, in 1959, he established the first lectureship in Digital
Computing within the Department of Applied Mathematics and purchased
the university's first digital computer, a DEUCE, in 1961." From
The
Queen's University of Belfast, Department of Computer Science.
